The Effect of Technology on Personal Injury Cases

We live in a world where innovation is constant.  We hear about self-driving cars, personal and private data that is stored in a “cloud” that we cannot see, and financial transactions are made largely without the use of currency.  What do these changes mean with respect to personal injury cases in the years to come?  It is a difficult question to answer but one that will be important for personal injury lawyers to both anticipate and have the courage to litigate when the opportunity arises.

Self-driving cars are being tested throughout the country.  In at least one case, there has been a death resulting from the operation of a self-driving car.  Though the facts of this case are not completely known, the question of whether there was contributory negligence seems to be important in deciding whether the safety of this machine is one to be questioned.  Who is to be sued?  Is it the manufacturer or the company that distributes the self-driving cars?  Is the government responsible for monitoring this distribution?  These questions need to be answered.

The use of personal data by retailers is an important question.  Privacy and security are increasing concerns for the general population both in terms of physical safety and the protection of data.  None of us can imagine living without the use of communication by computer.  Most people under the age of 50 pay their bills online and have their personal communications done electronically.  The newspapers are full of stories about how these privacy concerns are breached regularly and what the ramifications are to those who are victims.  Who is responsible for protecting your information?  Should there be security cameras most everywhere you go to prevent crime and theft?  What is reasonable and responsible behavior by an employer?  By the local or state government?  All important issues.

Those tort lawyers who consider themselves aggressive advocates for their clients need to look at new and interesting avenues to protect people’s property and rights.  The dialogue is just beginning and will continue for years to come.

By: Kent Barker

Attorney Kent M. Barker practices Personal Injury, Family & Divorce, and Criminal Law at Winer & Bennett, LLP. To receive expert and experienced legal counsel on your Personal Injury matter, contact the attorneys at Winer & Bennett at 603-882-5157. Visit our website at

Passenger Claims

How does a passenger in a car crash recover damages when the driver of the vehicle is found “at fault”?

Passenger claims carry a certain stigma because they are often cast as “suing” a person with a close relationship to the passenger, such as a husband or friend.  This characterization is beneficial to insurers who would otherwise have to pay money out under the insurance policy.  Mind you, this is a policy for which the driver is paying premiums month after month to protect themselves and their loved ones.  This characterization is especially problematic in the unfortunate instance of a wrongful death case when the passenger’s injuries are fatal.

The basis of this misconception is rooted in the fact that a jury is never told whether a person has insurance.  Therefore, if the case does not settle outside of court and proceeds to a lawsuit, the Defendant listed is the name of the driver or vehicle owner.  Insurers are quick to remind injured parties of this fact.  In the vast majority of cases, the reality is that you are “suing” the driver to seek fair compensation under an insurance policy and not against the individual’s personal assets.

Under New Hampshire law, passengers have the right to recover for, among other things, medical expenses, lost wages, physical pain and emotional distress.   A strong advocate will go a long way toward avoiding common misconceptions and recovering fair compensation for an injured passenger.

By: Brenner G. Webb

To receive expert legal guidance on matters like this, contact the law office of Winer & Bennett, LLP at 603-882-5157. Visit for more information.

Protecting Ourselves From Uninsured Drivers

The laws in New Hampshire do not require that vehicle owners maintain automobile insurance.  Setting the wisdom of that policy aside, many individuals in New Hampshire unexpectedly have this problem when they are injured by negligent drivers who don’t have insurance.  Where does one turn when they are faced with such a scenario? 
The answer is that you file a claim under the “uninsured motorist coverage” on your own auto policy.  While it seems inherently unfair to the not-at-fault driver, this is the most practical way to ensure that you are covered by insurance.  Also by law in New Hampshire, the limits of liability that you select on your auto policy will be the same as your uninsured motorist coverage limits.  Therefore, the amount of coverage that you select is not only protecting others from harm that you might cause, but also from harm that others may cause you.  For that reason, it is critically important to you, your family, and anyone else that might use or ride in your vehicle, that you carry adequate limits.
Determining the “ideal” limits to carry on your policy is an impossible task.  However, one might consider factors such as the cost of medical care if you were seriously injured and needed surgery, required an extended stay in a hospital, and/or had to recover lost wages due to missed work.  These costs alone can quickly exceed $100,000.  Another consideration is the relatively low cost to carry significantly more insurance.  You might ask your insurer what it would cost to increase your limits of insurance from, for example, $100,000 to $250,000.  Often, it is a matter of a few extra dollars.
While our “Live Free or Die” motto in New Hampshire comes with certain advantages, it also requires that we use extra care to protect ourselves, our loved ones, and anyone else on the road.
By:  Brenner G. Webb
Attorney Brenner G. Webb practices Personal Injury, Business, and Criminal Law at Winer & Bennett, LLP. To connect with Brenner and learn more about matters like this, visit

Invisible Insurance

When you bring suit to recover for injuries caused by someone else, you sue the responsible party. You may not name the responsible party’s insurance company in the suit.  In fact, if reference is made in the presence of the jury to the fact that there was insurance, a mistrial would be declared.

The judicial system routinely praises the wisdom and sanctity of the jury. Yet somewhere along the way, it has convinced itself that a jury will award money irresponsibly if it finds out that there is insurance coverage. What the system does in response is bend over backwards to give the jury the false impression that a verdict for an injured party must be paid out of the pocket of the responsible party. That is virtually always untrue in personal injury cases.

To promote that falsehood is to mislead the jury. Luckily, I don’t believe that our jurors are fooled. They aren’t naïve. They assume that there’s insurance. And the record is clear that that doesn’t cause our juries to act irresponsibly.

By:  Peter G. Webb


What is my Personal Injury Case Worth?

A personal injury lawyer is often asked early on what the value of a case is. I sometimes respond by asking the client what a car in our parking lot is worth.  A client naturally asks how old the car is, what shape the body is in, what the make and model are, what the mileage is, whether there are any mechanical problems, etc.  People are familiar with the buying and selling of cars and they instinctively know that you have to have the specs first.

The value of a personal injury claim is also determined by the specific facts of the case. Those facts have to be known before a valid value can be assigned to the claim.  Not all cases involving a leg fracture, for example, have the same value.

The value of a case will be influenced by, among other things:

  1. The severity of the injury;
  2. The total amount of the medical expense;
  3. The extent to which the injury impacts normal activities;
  4. The amount of any past and future wages lost as a result of the injury;
  5. The magnitude and duration of the pain the injury causes;
  6. The emotional consequences of the physical injury;
  7. The future impact of the injury.

An experienced lawyer will tell you at the outset that an accurate valuing of your claim can’t be made until there is a complete understanding of the full reality of the injury. That full reality is what a jury will be asked to value when it decides what in a particular case constitutes “full, fair and adequate compensation.”

By:  Peter G. Webb


Invisible Insurance

When you bring suit to recover for injuries caused by someone else, you sue the responsible party.  You may not name the responsible party’s insurance company in the suit.  In fact, if reference is made in the presence of the jury to the fact that there was insurance, a mistrial would be declared.

The judicial system routinely praises the wisdom and sanctity of the jury. Yet somewhere along the way, it has convinced itself that a jury will award money irresponsibly if it finds out that there is insurance coverage. What the system does in response is bend over backwards to give the jury the false impression that a verdict for an injured party must be paid out of the pocket of the responsible party.  That is virtually always untrue in personal injury cases.

To promote that falsehood is to mislead the jury. Luckily, I don’t believe that our jurors are fooled. They aren’t naïve. They assume that there’s insurance.  And the record is clear that that doesn’t cause our juries to act irresponsibly.

Seasons Change, Feelings Change…How About the Rules?

Kudos if you caught the Expose song reference in the title. I’m actually not sure how it spilled out of my head. It is, however, appropriate for this writing. Over the years, I’ve seen that certain issues at associations claim popularity in a cyclical fashion. Recently, I had occasion to discuss “rules” several times.

Taking a brief step back, one may wonder why a board would invest time and effort making or enforcing rules. First, it is a part of the board’s fiduciary responsibilities in operating the condominium. Some set of rules is also necessary to secure the consistency of the architectural appearance as well as the rights and obligations associated with residency in the community. These are among the benefits that owners expect to receive when electing to join a condominium association.

My philosophy on making rules is that rules should be created to address situations that are reasonably expected to occur. In essence, provide the guidance that people will need in order to live at the association. Unnecessary rules tend to lead away from the association’s goal of community harmony and to invite precisely what boards wish to avoid, namely disputes over what constitutes acceptable conduct. Certain “general” rules are applicable at most, if not all, associations. For example, rules pertaining to taking care of units, being courteous to others, avoiding misuse or damage of common areas, etc. For more “particular” rules, review the association’s layout and amenities (e.g. separate, townhouse or “garden style” units, decks, pool, clubhouse) and style a set of rules as necessary to cover the situations that are expected to occur on the property.

When making rules, two primary areas of concern pertain to the authority for the rule and the substance of the rule. I created acronyms to cover the crucial points. In terms of authority, you want to “CAST” a rule. The explanation is as follows: “C” is condominium document authorization (do the documents provide authority to regulate this issue); “A” is administrative in nature (boards make administrative rules while those substantively impacting ownership rights are made via amendment to the condominium documents); “S” is statutory authorization (does applicable law allow for this type of rule); and “T” is trustee approval (ultimately the board must formally vote to adopt the rule).

In terms of substance, you want the rule to be in “FORCE”. This acronym plays out as follows: “F” is fair (rule applies equally to all segments of the community); “O” is observed (circulate and publish rules, distribute them and record them if possible); “R” is reasonable (a reasonable rule will invite compliance while unreasonable rules invite challenge); “C” is clear (clear rules invite compliance while vague rules invite confusion); and “E” is evenly-applied (enforcement of the rule is undertaken consistently).

For enforcement of rules, it is helpful to consider two main procedural components. I refer to these as the “in-house” process and the “legal” process. The in-house process begins at the association. Board members may either observe a violation or receive a complaint regarding one. The board should conduct some amount of investigation to ascertain the circumstances. If it is determined that a violation did, in fact, occur, then the board should issue a warning (or fine depending on the association’s policy). If an owner seeks an opportunity to be heard on a violation, it is recommended that the board provide such an opportunity. In doing so, the board may learn important additional information about the matter. It also avoids a later argument, if the dispute continues, that the board refused to allow the accused to communicate. After hearing from the owner, the board should place the final decision on the matter in writing. Yes, this does create a record. However, a record of a decision made on an appropriate basis may be used to counter any future allegations that the board’s decision was rendered on an improper basis.

If a unit owner refuses to remedy a violation or commits new/multiple violations, the association may reasonably begin the “legal” process. Once referred to legal counsel, the process is relatively straightforward. At the board’s discretion, a “warning” letter may issue. The next step, in terms of severity, is the issuance of a “cease and desist” letter. This letter cites the problematic conduct, evidence of it and the applicable restrictions that the misconduct violates. This letter also describes the consequences for failure to comply. If the cease and desist notice does not resolve the issue, the association may institute litigation. Relief sought in the litigation could be both injunctive (order regarding behavior) and financial (award of expenses and legal fees).

The appropriate time for changing rules at an association is a subjective decision. From time-to-time, like the state or federal law, the association rules will become outdated. Changes in societal norms may require updating of rules, while changes in the value of the dollar may require updates to the fine structure. Another opportune time for rule change is upon a change in circumstances at the association. Examples include the addition or removal of amenities or a transfer of responsibilities through events such as adoption of limited common area agreements.

Properly managed, rules can be a positive part of the association experience. Boards can responsibly satisfy their roles with respect to rules through consistent efforts and appropriate use of legal counsel.

By Gary M. Daddario


Conservation Measures: Assisting the Granite State with Going Green

As a condominium practitioner representing associations in both MA and NH, I often find it interesting to compare differences in the laws of the Commonwealth and the Granite State. While I believe that most would readily lean towards NH as the state with the edge on natural resources and beauty, in terms of their respective condominium statutes MA has a provision that takes an edge in the “green” department. Accordingly, the New Hampshire legislature could serve the conservation efforts of the state by lifting a provision of the Massachusetts Condominium Statute and adding it to the New Hampshire Condominium Act.

In particular, M.G.L. c. 183A, §6(a)(ii) provides that “the organization of unit owners may assess to each owner the direct cost of any energy conservation device installed in a unit, not already separately metered for water and utilities, including but not limited to the installation of separate water meters, low-flow toilets and showerheads, faucet aerators, windows and storm windows….” As is apparent from the plain language of the statute, this provision provides a powerful means of associations making significant conservation efforts. Separate water meters, low-flow toilets and showerheads and faucet aerators could significantly reduce water usage in units. Quality windows and storm windows could significantly improve a unit’s efficiency and thereby reduce the amount of heating resources necessary to maintain an appropriate temperature during the winter. Afforded the same authority with respect to such matters, the governing boards of New Hampshire’s associations could take steps to ensure the conservation of water and heating utilities.

Other common forms of conservation could also provide associations with significant reductions in utilities. For example, energy efficient bulbs hold the potential to save sizable amounts of electricity at associations. Many associations have common area lighting. For some, such lighting may exist in large quantities around exterior grounds. For others, such lighting may appear along the hallways of multiple floors of buildings containing “garden” style units. Due to the volume of bulbs used by many associations, the switch to energy efficient bulbs would likely have a large impact. Associations might even tangentially benefit from this change by saving on maintenance and replacement bulb charges since many energy efficient bulbs claim to require bulb replacement on a much less frequent basis than traditional bulbs.

While conservation efforts are laudable, association boards contemplating such measures should exercise caution. The introduction of new components to the condominium (e.g. solar panels, rainwater runoff collection system, etc.) could require a formal approval process including a vote of the community. It is recommended that boards share ideas in this regard with legal counsel in a proactive manner. This will allow the association’s attorney the opportunity to advise the board on how to properly implement new components.

Sidebar- Legislative Update

A quick New Hampshire legislative update- HB 1115 passed and was signed by the Governor. Effective January 1, 2015, this provision clarifies that a unit owner’s Homestead Declaration does not protect against an association’s lien for unpaid condominium assessments.
By Gary M. Daddario


Saving Money on Insurance, Or Are You?

Insurance companies are constantly finding new ways to entice potential customers to shop for insurance.  One of the latest tactics is to permit shoppers to “pick their price.”  This marketing scheme is a trap for the unwary.  Here’s why:

Nearly everyone wants to pay less for their insurance.  The less we pay them, the more we have in our own pocket.  The problem is that by setting a specific price point, one that is almost certainly less than what you currently pay, the insurance company is enticing you to focus on price rather than coverage. That is where the trick lies.  By showing you what you could save rather than an “apples to apples” comparison of coverage, many are lured into thinking that they are getting a great deal when, in reality, you are only getting a policy with lower coverage and limits.

This is particularly problematic today where many of us shop online rather than going to an insurance agent who can explain the various coverages and your personal needs.  Considerations might include the type of vehicle that you drive, your line of work, your personal estate, whether you have a family, or even your personal driving habits.

In New Hampshire, the lowest available liability coverage is $25,000.  This level of liability coverage is irresponsibly low.  Underwhelming limits like these not only endanger your personal financial well-being, but also the well-being of every other driver and passenger on the road.  We all know just how expensive medical treatment is in the modern world.  It doesn’t take much to incur medical bills alone in excess of $25,000.  When liability limits are not adequate, you will then be responsible personally for the remainder.

So, the next time you are intrigued by the thought of saving money on your insurance, do your homework and speak with someone that can explain it to you.  In the end, we will all be far better off spending a little extra on coverage and limits that adequately protect us, our families, and everyone else on the road.

By: Brenner Webb



Do it yourselfers. Ya gotta love’em. Self reliance is, after all, a fundamental American trait. Nevertheless, I have to shake my head when a proud but naïve soul brings in a mismanaged vestige of a once promising case, and wonders if we might offer a little advice. Usually, it’s like trying to revive a chronically under-watered and over-exposed house plant. The poor thing is just too far gone. A good outcome takes more than trusting that truth will prevail.

If you get experienced counsel in early on, your case will be developed and managed step by step by someone who knows how it is done, what’s important, and what not to do. You would probably hire your lawyer for a personal injury claim on a contingent fee basis, so the attorney’s fees will be percentage of the recovery ultimately achieved, whatever and whenever that might prove to be. Since it will cost you the same either way, you’d be well advised to get the lawyer in sooner rather than later.

Most of us would not try to repair our car’s transmission ourselves. It’s also not a good idea to try to handle your personal injury claim yourself.

By: Peter G. Webb